Ecosystems are essential to human life, livelihoods and wellbeing. Many national policies and international agreements include goals to protect ecosystem services. A new guide – commissioned by the Ecosystem Services for Poverty Alleviation (ESPA) programme and written by Professor James Bullock of the Centre for Ecology & Hydrology and Helen Ding of World Resources Institute – helps readers to assess how ecosystem service models could support policy-making in their countries.

Prof. James Bullock said, “This guide is designed to introduce and explain ecosystem service models to the people across the World who are making difficult decisions about resource use and planning. It guides the non-expert reader through the types of ecosystem service model available and how to choose the right model for your particular decision-making question.”

Ecosystem protection features in several of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals – particularly those on terrestrial ecosystems and biodiversity, and the marine environment. Some countries’ national climate action plans, submitted under the 2015 Paris Agreement, include ecosystem-based approaches to climate change adaptation and mitigation.

In order to manage ecosystem services sustainably, decision-makers need to understand the extent and condition of ecosystems. They must be able to predict the impacts of alternative policies or management decisions on the environment.

Frequently, there is not enough measured data on ecosystem services. In these situations, models can provide useful information based on assumptions from similar places. Modeling is especially useful in developing countries, where measured data may be scarce.

The guide is particularly suited to advisors and technical managers who are supporting policy-makers.

The guide includes:

  • Advice on how models can inform different types of policy and programme decisions
  • Guidance on how to consider technical capacity and resource needs, when selecting an appropriate model
  • Case studies that draw on current policy issues and modeling experience in Africa.

It is based on results from the 2013–16 WISER project, which assessed several ecosystem service modeling tools in sub-Saharan Africa. Policy advisors from Malawi and Uganda contributed actively to the guide’s development.

The ESPA programme is funded by the United Kingdom’s Department for International Development (DFID), the Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC) and the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC).

Adapted from text supplied by ESPA


Ecosystem Services for Poverty Alleviation (ESPA) programme

Prof James Bullock